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Kurdish Top Facts

Kurdish people
The Kurdish people, or Kurds (Kurdish: کورد Kurd), are an Iranic people native to the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a region known as Kurdistan, which includes adjacent parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. They speak the Kurdish language, which is a member of the Iranian branch of Indo-European languages.
Kurdish peopleEthnic groups in IraqEthnic groups in ArmeniaEthnic groups in the Arab LeagueIranian peoplesEthnic groups in the Middle EastEthnic groups in SyriaEthnic groups in TurkeyAncient peoplesIndigenous peoples of Western AsiaEthnic groups in IranKurdish peopleFertile CrescentMuslim communities

Kurdish language
Kurdish is a dialect continuum spoken by the Kurds in western Asia. It is part of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian group of Indo-European languages. The Kurdish language itself has about 16 million speakers today. According to KONDA, 11.97% of the total population of Turkey speaks Kurdish as their native or second language. According to the CIA World Factbook, 10% of total population of Iran speaks Kurdish.
Kurdish languageLanguages of LebanonLanguages of IsraelLanguages of ArmeniaLanguages of AzerbaijanLanguages of IraqIranian languagesLanguages of IranKurdish languageSubject–object–verb languagesLanguages of SyriaLanguages of Turkey

Iraqi Kurdistan
Iraqi Kurdistan or Kurdistan Region is an autonomous region of Iraq. It borders Iran to the east, Turkey to the north, Syria to the west and the rest of Iraq to the south. The regional capital is Arbil, known in Kurdish as Hewlêr. The region is officially governed by the Kurdistan Regional Government. The establishment of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq dates back to the March 1970 autonomy agreement between the Kurdish opposition and the Iraqi government after years of heavy fighting.
Iraqi KurdistanPolitics of IraqIraqi KurdistanAutonomous regionsDisputed territories in AsiaGeography of IraqFertile Crescent

Kurdistan is a roughly defined geo-cultural region wherein the Kurds form a prominent majority population, and Kurdish culture, language, and national identity have historically been based. Contemporary use of Kurdistan refers to parts of eastern Turkey, northern Iraq, northwestern Iran and northern Syria inhabited mainly by Kurds. Kurdistan roughly encompasses the northwestern Zagros and the eastern Taurus mountain ranges, and covers small portions of Armenia.
KurdistanCultural regionsMiddle EastKurdistanDivided regionsFertile Crescent

Wiktionary is a multilingual, web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in 158 languages. Unlike standard dictionaries, it is written collaboratively by volunteers, dubbed "Wiktionarians", using wiki software, allowing articles to be changed by almost anyone with access to the website. Like its sister project Wikipedia, Wiktionary is run by the Wikimedia Foundation.
WiktionaryWikisOnline dictionariesInternet properties established in 2002Wikimedia projectsMultilingual websitesEducational websites

The Yazidi are a Kurdish ethnoreligious group with Indo-Iranian roots. They currently live primarily in the Nineveh Province of northern Iraq. Additional communities in Transcaucasia, Armenia, Turkey, and Syria have been in decline since the 1990s, their members having emigrated to Europe, especially to Germany.
YazidiEthnic groups in IraqEthnoreligious groupsReligion in IraqEthnic groups in Georgia (country)YazidiEthnic groups in SyriaEthnic groups in GermanyMonotheistic religionsIslamic sectsEthnic groups in RussiaIranian religionsKurdish languageMysticismKurdish peopleReligion in Iran

List of Wikipedias
This is a list of many of the different language editions of Wikipedia; as of May 2012, there are 285 Wikipedias. For their number of articles, see the main list.
List of WikipediasWikipedia statisticsWikipedias by language

Kurdistan Democratic Party
For other uses of KDP see KDP (disambiguation); for other uses of Kurdistan Democratic Party see Kurdistan Democratic Party (disambiguation) 50x40px This article uses bare URLs for citations. Please consider adding full citations so that the article remains verifiable. Several templates and the Reflinks tool are available to assist in formatting.
Kurdistan Democratic PartyPolitical parties in IraqPolitical parties established in 1946Secession in IraqKurdish organisationsPolitical parties in Iraqi Kurdistan

Kurdistan Regional Government
The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG),, is the official ruling body of the predominantly Kurds-populated Kurdistan Region in Northern Iraq. The KRG consists of a unicameral parliament with 111 seats known as the Iraqi Kurdistan Parliament (IKP). The cabinet is selected by the majority party or list who also select the prime minister of the Kurdistan Region.
Kurdistan Regional GovernmentPolitics of Iraq2005 in Iraq2005 in politicsIraqi KurdistanGovernment agencies established in 2005

Peshmerga or Peshmerge is the term used by Kurds to refer to armed Kurdish fighters. Literally meaning "those who face death" (Pesh front + marg death) the Peshmerga forces of Kurdistan have been in existence since the advent of the Kurdish independence movement in the early 1920s, following the collapse of the Ottoman and Qajar empires which had jointly ruled over the area. Peshmerga forces include women in their ranks.
PeshmergaPolitics of IraqIraqi Kurdistan

Iranian Kurdistan
Iranian Kurdistan is an unofficial name for the parts of Iran inhabited by Kurds and has borders with Iraq and Turkey. It includes Kurdistan Province, Kermanshah Province and Ilam Province and parts of West Azerbaijan Province. According to the last census conducted in 2006, the four Kurdish-inhabited provinces in Iran, West Azerbaijan (2,873,459), Kermanshah Province (1,879,385), Kurdistan Province (1,440,156), and Ilam Province (545,787) have a total population of 6,738,787.
Iranian KurdistanKurdistanRegions of IranDivided regions

Western Iranian languages
The Western Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages, attested from the time of Old Persian (6th century BC). The two sub-branches are: Northwestern Iranian languages Southwestern Iranian languages The opposition of these two dialect groups is apparent already in Old Iranian times, from the opposition of Old Persian and Median.
Western Iranian languagesWestern Iranian languages

Kurdish–Turkish conflict

Kurdish–Turkish conflict



Kurmanji (Kurmancî) or Northern Kurdish (sometimes misspelled as Kirmanji, Kurmangi or Kermanji) is the most commonly spoken dialect of the Kurdish language.
KurmanjiLanguages of ArmeniaLanguages of AzerbaijanLanguages of IraqLanguages of IranKurdish languageLanguages of SyriaLanguages of Turkey

Al-Anfal Campaign
The al-Anfal Campaign, also known as the Kurdish Genocide, Operation Anfal or simply Anfal, was a genocidal campaign against the Kurdish people (and other non-Arab populations) in Northern Iraq, led by the Iraqi regime of Saddam Hussein and headed by Ali Hassan al-Majid in the final stages of Iran-Iraq War.
Al-Anfal CampaignWar crimes in IraqMassacres in IraqConflicts in 1988Conflicts in 1989Ethnic cleansing1988 in Iraq1987 in Iraq20th century in IraqKurdish protests and rebellions in IraqPrisoners of war massacres1986 in IraqConflicts in 19861989 in IraqHistory of the Kurdish peopleConflicts in 1987Wars involving Iraq

Republic of Mahabad
The Republic of Mahabad, officially known as Republic of Kurdistan and established in Iranian Kurdistan, was a short-lived, Kurdish government that sought Kurdish autonomy within the limits of the Iranian state. The capital was the city of Mahabad in northwestern Iran. The state itself encompassed a small territory, including Mahabad and the market towns of Piranshahr, Sardasht, Bukan, Naqada and Ushnaviya.
Republic of MahabadStates and territories established in 19461947 disestablishments20th century in IranFormer Kurdish statesFormer countries in the Middle EastStates and territories disestablished in 1947Republic of MahabadIran–Soviet Union relationsHistory of the Kurdish peopleHistory of West Azerbaijan ProvinceHistory of Mahabad

Kurds in Turkey
Ethnic Kurds compose 25% of the population in Turkey. Unlike the Turkish people, the Kurds speak an Indo-European language. There are Kurds living in all provinces of Turkey, but are primarily concentrated in the east and southeast of the country, which largely resembles the historical region of Kurdistan. In the 1930s, Turkish government policy aimed at assimilating Kurds in Turkey, many have resisted these measures and today Kurds make up around 20-30% of the population of Turkey.
Kurds in TurkeyEthnic minoritiesKurdish diasporaEthnic groups in TurkeyHistory of the Kurdish people

Gorani language
Not to be confused with Goran language, also known as Dazaga language, part of the Saharan branch of the Nilo-Saharan language family 40x40px Title=Gorani language;ns=0/Main/;language:wiki=en,locale=en test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Gorani HawramiSpoken in Iraq and IranRegion Primarily Hawraman and GarmianNative speakers 44,000  (2000)Language family Indo-European Indo-IranianIranianWesternNorthwesternZaza–GoraniGoraniLanguage codesISO 639-3 hacLinguasphere 58-AAA-b Gorani (also Gurani) is a group of Northwestern Iranian dialects, that includes Hewramî, and is spoken by Kurdish people in the southernmost parts of Iranian Kurdistan and the Iraqi Kurdistan region.
Gorani languageEndangered languages of IranEndangered languagesNorthwestern Iranian languagesEndangered Iranian languagesEndangered languages of Iraq

Kurdish Jews
Kurdish Jews or Kurdistani Jews are the ancient Eastern Jewish communities, inhabiting the region known as Kurdistan in northern Mesopotamia, roughly covering parts of Iran, northern Iraq, Syria and eastern Turkey. Their clothing and culture is similar to neighbouring Kurdish Muslims and Christian Assyrians. Until their immigration to Israel in the 1940s and early 1950s, the Jews of Kurdistan lived as closed ethnic communities.
Kurdish JewsMizrahi Jews topicsKurdish JewsJewish ethnic groupsHistory of the Jews in the Middle EastJews and Judaism in Kurdistan

Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan
The Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan (Kurdish: Partî Dêmokiratî Kurdistanî Êran), abbreviated as PDKI, KDPI, PDKI, is a Kurdish political party in Iranian Kurdistan which seeks the attainment of Kurdish national rights within a democratic federal republic of Iran.
Democratic Party of Iranian KurdistanPolitical parties established in 1945Political parties in IranSocialist InternationalIranian Kurdish organisations

Kurdistan Parliament
The Iraqi Kurdistan Parliament or IKP is the parliament of Kurdistan Regional Government in Iraqi Kurdistan. The IKP is made up of representatives from the various parties, lists or slates that are elected every four years to serve by the inhabitants of the provinces of Iraqi Kurdistan currently governed by the Kurdistan Regional Government. Prior to the new Kurdistan Election Law passed in March 2009, the body was referred to as the Kurdistan National Assembly.
Kurdistan ParliamentPolitics of Iraqi Kurdistan

Kurdish music
Kurdish music refers to music performed in Kurdish language. Traditionally, there are three types of Kurdish Classical performers - storytellers (çîrokbêj), minstrels (stranbêj) and bards (dengbêj). There was no specific music related to the Kurdish princely courts, and instead, music performed in night gatherings (şevbihêrk) is considered classical. Several musical forms are found in this genre.
Kurdish musicKurdish musicKurdish cultureIraqi musicTurkish musicSyrian musicArmenian musicIranian musicFertile Crescent

Judeo-Aramaic language
Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages.
Judeo-Aramaic languageAramaic languages

Kurdish nationalism
Kurdish nationalism is the political movement that holds that the Kurdish people are a nation deserving of a sovereign homeland, Kurdistan out of the territories where Kurdish people form a majority. Currently, these territories lie in northern Iraq, northwestern Iran, southeastern Turkey and small parts of Syria. Early Kurdish Nationalism has its roots in the days of the Ottoman Empire, within which it became a significant ethnic group.
Kurdish nationalismHistory of nationalityNationalism by country or regionHistory of the Kurdish peopleKurdish nationalism

Kurdistan List
The Kurdistan List (Kurdish: ليست كوردستان Lîstî Kurdistani), also known as the Kurdistan Alliance or the Brotherhood List, is the name of the electoral coalition that ran in the Kurdistan Regional Government parliamentary elections in Iraqi Kurdistan in July 2009. The Kurdistan List represented a coalition of the two main ruling parties in Iraqi Kurdistan, namely the Kurdistan Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan.
Kurdistan ListPolitics of IraqYazidiIraqi KurdistanKurdistanPolitical parties in Iraqi Kurdistan

Democratic Patriotic Alliance of Kurdistan
The Democratic Patriotic Alliance of Kurdistan (DPAK) sometimes referred to simply as the Kurdistan Alliance (KA) is the name of the electoral coalition first presented as a united Kurdish list in the January 2005 election in Iraq. Elections were held simultaneously for the assembly of the Kurdistan Regional Government.
Democratic Patriotic Alliance of KurdistanPolitical parties in IraqPolitical parties in Iraqi KurdistanKurdish organisations

Sheikh Said rebellion
Sheikh Said Rebellion was a rebellion of a Kurdish clergy Sheikh Said and a group of former Kurdish Hamidieh soldiers (Azadî group) in 1925.
Sheikh Said rebellionKurdish protests and rebellions in TurkeySheikh Said rebellion

Koma Civakên Kurdistan

Koma Civakên Kurdistan

Turkish Kurdistan
Turkish Kurdistan (Kurdish: Kurdistana Tirkiyê or Bakurê Kurdistanê,, or Northern Kurdistan) is an unofficial name for the southeastern part of Turkey, which is inhabited predominantly by ethnic Kurds. The area covers between 190,000 to 230,000 km² (88,780 sq mi), or nearly a third of Turkey.
Turkish KurdistanKurdistanKurdish inhabited regions

Republic of Ararat
The Republic of Ararat or Kurdish Republic of Ararat was a self-proclaimed Kurdish state. It was located in the northeasten part of modern Turkey, being centered on Karaköse Province. Agirî is the Kurdish name for Ararat.
Republic of AraratFormer Kurdish statesFormer republicsRepublic of Ararat



Iraqi Kurdistan legislative election, 2009
The Iraqi Kurdistan legislative elections of 2009 took place on 25 July 2009. A total of 2.5 million citizens of Iraqi Kurdistan were eligible to vote for the parliamentary and presidential elections. People currently living outside Iraqi Kurdistan were not allowed to vote. The elections followed the Iraqi Kurdistan elections of 2005. The parliamentary elections coincided with the direct election of the President of Kurdistan.
Iraqi Kurdistan legislative election, 2009Elections in Iraq2009 elections in Iraq

Baban (1649–1850) were a Kurdish principality and ruling family originating from Darishmana in the region of Pijder. The founder of the dynasty and its first ruler was Fakih Ahmed a descendent of the ancient house of Soran. He also had a brother named Khidder Ahmed who lived with him.
Baban1850 disestablishmentsFormer countries in the Middle EastKurdish dynastiesIraqi KurdistanHistory of the Kurdish people1649 establishments

Southern Kurdish
Southern Kurdish, also called Kermānšāhi, belongs to the Northwestern Iranian languages and is predominantly spoken in western Iran and eastern Iraq. In Iran, it is spoken in the provinces of Kermanshah (Kermānšān) and Ilam. In Iraq it is spoken in the region of Khanaqin (Xaneqîn), all the way to Mandali, Pehle. It is also the language of the populous Kurdish Kakayî tribe near Kerkuk and the Zengenes near Kifrî.
Southern KurdishKurdish language

Second Kurdish–Iraqi War

Second Kurdish–Iraqi War

Hamidiye (cavalry)
The Hamidiye corps (literally meaning "belonging to Hamid") were well-armed, irregular Sunni Kurdish, Turkish, Turkmenand Yörük cavalry formations that operated in the eastern regions of the Ottoman Empire. Established by and named after Sultan Abdul Hamid II in 1890, they were intended to be modeled after the Russian Cossacks and were supposedly tasked to patrol the Russo-Ottoman frontier.
Hamidiye (cavalry)History of the Kurdish peoplePeople of the Armenian GenocideMilitary units and formations of the Ottoman Empire

Kurdistan Uyezd
Kurdistan Uyezd (Azerbaijani: Kürdüstan qəzası, Russian: Курдистанский уезд Kurdistanskij Uezd), also known colloquially as Red Kurdistan (Azerbaijani: Qızıl Kürdistan; Kurdish: Кöрдьстана Сор / Kôrdistana Sor; Russian: Красный Курдистан Krasniy Kurdistan) was a Soviet administrative unit that existed for six years from 1923 to 1929. Its capital was Lachin (Laçın in Kurdish). The presence of Kurds in the southern Caucasus dates back to the 9th century.
Kurdistan UyezdHistory of AzerbaijanNagorno-KarabakhForced migration in the Soviet UnionHistory of KurdistanHistory of ArmeniaUyezds of the Russian Empire

Kingdom of Kurdistan
The Kingdom of Kurdistan refers to two short-lived unrecognized states formed in the 1920s in the geo-cultural region of Kurdistan after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, in the territory, officially under the jurisdiction of the British Mandate of Mesopotamia.
Kingdom of KurdistanFormer Kurdish statesFormer countries in the Middle East20th century in IraqStates and territories established in 1922Turkish War of Independence1924 disestablishmentsHistory of the Kurdish peopleSecession in IraqKingdom of Kurdistan

Kurdish alphabets
The Kurdish language is written either using a variant of the Latin alphabet, according to a system introduced by Jeladet Ali Bedirkhan in 1932 (the so-called Bedirxan alphabet, or Hawar after the Hawar magazine), or using a variant of the Persian alphabet, the so-called Sorani alphabet, named for the city of Soran, Iraq. The Hawar is used in Turkey, Syria and Armenia; the Sorani in Iraq and Iran.
Kurdish alphabetsKurdish languageLatin alphabetsArabic alphabets

Flag of Kurdistan
The Flag of Kurdistan first appeared during the Kurdish independence movement from the Ottoman Empire. It is said to have been created in the 1900s by the organisation of Xoybûn (Khoyboon). An earlier version of this flag was flown by the break-away Republic of Ararat in Turkey during the period 1927-1931. A similar flag was later used by the Soviet-backed Kurdistan autonomous state known as the Republic of Mahabad in 1946.
Flag of KurdistanEthnic flagsHistory of the Kurdish peopleKurdistan

Iraqi Kurdish Civil War
The Iraqi Kurdish Civil War was a military conflict which took place between rival Kurdish factions in Iraqi Kurdistan in the mid 1990s, most notably the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan vs. the Kurdistan Democratic Party. Over the course of the conflict, Kurdish factions from Iran and Turkey, as well as Iranian, Iraqi and Turkish forces were drawn in to the fighting, with additional involvement from the American forces.
Iraqi Kurdish Civil WarWars involving Iran1997 in IraqCivil wars post-194520th century in IraqKurdish protests and rebellions in IraqConflicts in 1994Wars involving the United States1994 in IraqCivil wars involving the states and peoples of AsiaConflicts in 1997History of KurdistanKurdistan independence movement1996 in IraqConflicts in 1995History of the Kurdish peopleConflicts in 1996Wars involving IraqWars involving Turkey1995 in Iraq

Newroz in Kurdistan
Newroz or Nûroj refers to the celebration of the traditional Iranian new year holiday of Newroz in Kurdish society. The festival of Nowruz is celebrated throughout the countries of the Middle East and Central Asia such as in Iran, Azerbaijan and Afghanistan. Newroz is also celebrated by some communities in Pakistan and Turkey. In Kurdish legend, the holiday celebrates the deliverance of the Kurds from a tyrant, and it is seen as another way of demonstrating support for the Kurdish cause.
Newroz in KurdistanKurdish cultureMarch observancesNowruz

Kurdish tribes
Kurdish tribes of Kurdistan consist of: Republic of Azerbaijan Sheylanli tribe West Azarbaijan Province: Jalali Milan Haydaran Donboli korahsuni Shekak Herki Bagzâdah Zerzâ Pirân Pizhdar Mâmash Mangur Mokri Dehbokri Malkari Suseni Feizollah beigi Kurdistan Province: Doski Sarshew Tilakui Sursuri Gashki Bashuki Kermanshah province: Kalhor Zangana Sanjâbi Guran Jaff Bajalan Qalkhâni Sharaf bayani Ilam province: Arkawâzi Kord Badrei Malek Shahi Shuhan Khezel Kalhor (Eyvani) Deh Balai Luristan province Biranavand Dilfan Kakavand Jalilavand Zand Mazandaran province: Modânlu Khâjevand Abdul Maleki Gilan province: Amârlu RiŠvand Khorasan province: Zaferânlu Shâdlu Topkânlu Sewkânlu
Kurdish tribesKurdish tribes

Kurd-Dagh or Kurd Mountain, also called Aleppo Mountain, is a highland region in northwestern Syria and southeastern Turkey. It is located in the Aleppo Governorate of Syria and Kilis Province of Turkey.
Kurd-DaghMountains of TurkeyMountains of SyriaAleppo Governorate

Kurdish population
The Kurdish population refers to the total number of Kurdish people in the world. The Kurds are the largest ethnic group in the world without their own state.
Kurdish populationKurdish diaspora

Northeastern Neo-Aramaic
Northeastern Neo-Aramaic (often abbreviated NENA) is a term used by Semiticists to refer to a large variety of Modern Aramaic languages that were once spoken of a large region stretching from the plain of Urmia, in northwestern Iran, to the plain of Mosul, in northern Iraq. As of the 1990s, the NENA group had an estimated number of speakers just below 500,000, spread throughout the Middle East and the Assyrian diaspora.
Northeastern Neo-AramaicLanguages of IsraelLanguages of AzerbaijanLanguages of IraqLanguages of IranNeo-Aramaic languagesLanguages of Turkey

Kurdish culture
Kurdish culture is a group of distinctive cultural traits practiced by Kurdish people. The Kurdish culture is a legacy from ancient peoples who shaped modern Kurds and their society. Some aspects of Kurdish culture are close to that of other Iranian peoples; for example all of them celebrate Newroz as the new year day, which is celebrated on March 21.
Kurdish cultureKurdish culture

Kurdish–Iraqi conflict

Kurdish–Iraqi conflict

Human rights of Kurdish people in Turkey
Human rights of Kurdish people in Turkey looks at the human rights of Kurds in Turkey.
Human rights of Kurdish people in TurkeyKurdish peopleHuman rights in TurkeyMinority rights