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Kurdish people

The Kurdish people, or Kurds (Kurdish: کورد Kurd), are an Iranic people native to the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a region known as Kurdistan, which includes adjacent parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. They speak the Kurdish language, which is a member of the Iranian branch of Indo-European languages.

Ethnic groups in Iraq Ethnic groups in Armenia Ethnic groups in the Arab League Iranian peoples Ethnic groups in the Middle East Ethnic groups in Syria Ethnic groups in Turkey Ancient peoples Indigenous peoples of Western Asia Ethnic groups in Iran Kurdish people Fertile Crescent Muslim communities
Kurdish language

Kurdish is a dialect continuum spoken by the Kurds in western Asia. It is part of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian group of Indo-European languages. The Kurdish language itself has about 16 million speakers today. According to KONDA, 11.97% of the total population of Turkey speaks Kurdish as their native or second language. According to the CIA World Factbook, 10% of total population of Iran speaks Kurdish.

Languages of Lebanon Languages of Israel Languages of Armenia Languages of Azerbaijan Languages of Iraq Iranian languages Languages of Iran Kurdish language Subject–object–verb languages Languages of Syria Languages of Turkey
Iraqi Kurdistan

Iraqi Kurdistan or Kurdistan Region is an autonomous region of Iraq. It borders Iran to the east, Turkey to the north, Syria to the west and the rest of Iraq to the south. The regional capital is Arbil, known in Kurdish as Hewlêr. The region is officially governed by the Kurdistan Regional Government. The establishment of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq dates back to the March 1970 autonomy agreement between the Kurdish opposition and the Iraqi government after years of heavy fighting.

Politics of Iraq Iraqi Kurdistan Autonomous regions Disputed territories in Asia Geography of Iraq Fertile Crescent
Kurdistan

Kurdistan is a roughly defined geo-cultural region wherein the Kurds form a prominent majority population, and Kurdish culture, language, and national identity have historically been based. Contemporary use of Kurdistan refers to parts of eastern Turkey, northern Iraq, northwestern Iran and northern Syria inhabited mainly by Kurds. Kurdistan roughly encompasses the northwestern Zagros and the eastern Taurus mountain ranges, and covers small portions of Armenia.

Cultural regions Middle East Kurdistan Divided regions Fertile Crescent
Ayyubid dynasty

The Ayyubid dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin, founded by Saladin and centered in Egypt. The dynasty ruled much of the Middle East during the 12th and 13th centuries CE. The Ayyubid family, under the brothers Ayyub and Shirkuh, originally served as soldiers for the Zengids until they supplanted them under Saladin, Ayyub's son. In 1174, Saladin proclaimed himself Sultan following the death of Nur al-Din.

Medieval Egypt Medieval Cairo States and territories established in 1171 Former countries in the Middle East Kurdish dynasties Ayyubid dynasty Muslim dynasties States and territories disestablished in 1341
Kurdistan Workers' Party

The Kurdistan Workers' Party (Kurdish: Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan or پارتی کار که‌رانی کوردستان Parti Karkerani Kurdistan), commonly known as PKK, also known as KGK and formerly known as KADEK (Freedom and Democracy Congress of Kurdistan) or KONGRA-GEL (Kurdistan People's Congress), is a Kurdish terrorist organization which has since 1984 been fighting an armed struggle against the Turkish state for an autonomous Kurdistan and greater cultural and political rights for the Kurds in Turkey.

Kurdistan Workers' Party Secession in Syria Government of Canada designated terrorist organizations Communist organizations European Union designated terrorist organizations Resistance movements Government of Kazakhstan designated terrorist organizations Terrorism in Turkey Nationalist terrorism Communism Secession in Turkey Anti-Revisionist organizations Far-left politics Organizations designated as terrorist in Asia Organizations designated as terrorist in Europe Secession in Iraq Organizations designated as terrorist by the Turkish Directorate General for Security United Kingdom Home Office designated terrorist groups Organizations designated as terrorist by the United States government
Wiktionary

Wiktionary is a multilingual, web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in 158 languages. Unlike standard dictionaries, it is written collaboratively by volunteers, dubbed "Wiktionarians", using wiki software, allowing articles to be changed by almost anyone with access to the website. Like its sister project Wikipedia, Wiktionary is run by the Wikimedia Foundation.

Wikis Online dictionaries Internet properties established in 2002 Wikimedia projects Multilingual websites Educational websites
Yazidi

The Yazidi are a Kurdish ethnoreligious group with Indo-Iranian roots. They currently live primarily in the Nineveh Province of northern Iraq. Additional communities in Transcaucasia, Armenia, Turkey, and Syria have been in decline since the 1990s, their members having emigrated to Europe, especially to Germany.

Ethnic groups in Iraq Ethnoreligious groups Religion in Iraq Ethnic groups in Georgia (country) Yazidi Ethnic groups in Syria Ethnic groups in Germany Monotheistic religions Islamic sects Ethnic groups in Russia Iranian religions Kurdish language Mysticism Kurdish people Religion in Iran
List of Wikipedias

This is a list of many of the different language editions of Wikipedia; as of May 2012, there are 285 Wikipedias. For their number of articles, see the main list.

Wikipedia statistics Wikipedias by language
Kurdistan Democratic Party

For other uses of KDP see KDP (disambiguation); for other uses of Kurdistan Democratic Party see Kurdistan Democratic Party (disambiguation) 50x40px This article uses bare URLs for citations. Please consider adding full citations so that the article remains verifiable. Several templates and the Reflinks tool are available to assist in formatting.

Political parties in Iraq Political parties established in 1946 Secession in Iraq Kurdish organisations Political parties in Iraqi Kurdistan
Kurdistan Regional Government

The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG),, is the official ruling body of the predominantly Kurds-populated Kurdistan Region in Northern Iraq. The KRG consists of a unicameral parliament with 111 seats known as the Iraqi Kurdistan Parliament (IKP). The cabinet is selected by the majority party or list who also select the prime minister of the Kurdistan Region.

Politics of Iraq 2005 in Iraq 2005 in politics Iraqi Kurdistan Government agencies established in 2005
Peshmerga

Peshmerga or Peshmerge is the term used by Kurds to refer to armed Kurdish fighters. Literally meaning "those who face death" (Pesh front + marg death) the Peshmerga forces of Kurdistan have been in existence since the advent of the Kurdish independence movement in the early 1920s, following the collapse of the Ottoman and Qajar empires which had jointly ruled over the area. Peshmerga forces include women in their ranks.

Politics of Iraq Iraqi Kurdistan
Iranian Kurdistan

Iranian Kurdistan is an unofficial name for the parts of Iran inhabited by Kurds and has borders with Iraq and Turkey. It includes Kurdistan Province, Kermanshah Province and Ilam Province and parts of West Azerbaijan Province. According to the last census conducted in 2006, the four Kurdish-inhabited provinces in Iran, West Azerbaijan (2,873,459), Kermanshah Province (1,879,385), Kurdistan Province (1,440,156), and Ilam Province (545,787) have a total population of 6,738,787.

Kurdistan Regions of Iran Divided regions
Western Iranian languages

The Western Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages, attested from the time of Old Persian (6th century BC). The two sub-branches are: Northwestern Iranian languages Southwestern Iranian languages The opposition of these two dialect groups is apparent already in Old Iranian times, from the opposition of Old Persian and Median.

Western Iranian languages
Kurdish–Turkish conflict

Soranî

Kurmanji

Kurmanji (Kurmancî) or Northern Kurdish (sometimes misspelled as Kirmanji, Kurmangi or Kermanji) is the most commonly spoken dialect of the Kurdish language.

Languages of Armenia Languages of Azerbaijan Languages of Iraq Languages of Iran Kurdish language Languages of Syria Languages of Turkey
Al-Anfal Campaign

The al-Anfal Campaign, also known as the Kurdish Genocide, Operation Anfal or simply Anfal, was a genocidal campaign against the Kurdish people (and other non-Arab populations) in Northern Iraq, led by the Iraqi regime of Saddam Hussein and headed by Ali Hassan al-Majid in the final stages of Iran-Iraq War.

War crimes in Iraq Massacres in Iraq Conflicts in 1988 Conflicts in 1989 Ethnic cleansing 1988 in Iraq 1987 in Iraq 20th century in Iraq Kurdish protests and rebellions in Iraq Prisoners of war massacres 1986 in Iraq Conflicts in 1986 1989 in Iraq History of the Kurdish people Conflicts in 1987 Wars involving Iraq
1991 uprisings in Iraq

The 1991 uprisings in Iraq were a series of anti-governmental rebellions in southern and northern Iraq during the aftermath of the Gulf War. The revolt was fueled by the perception that the power of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein was vulnerable at the time; as well as by heavily fueled anger at government repression and the devastation wrought by two wars in a decade, the Iran-Iraq War and the Gulf War.

Shi'a–Sunni relations Religion-based civil wars 1991 in Iraq Civil wars post-1945 20th century in Iraq George H. W. Bush administration controversies Collective punishment Conflicts in 1991 Civil wars involving the states and peoples of Asia Torture in Iraq 20th-century revolutions History of the Kurdish people Rebellions in Asia Gulf War Intifadas Wars involving Iraq
Republic of Mahabad

The Republic of Mahabad, officially known as Republic of Kurdistan and established in Iranian Kurdistan, was a short-lived, Kurdish government that sought Kurdish autonomy within the limits of the Iranian state. The capital was the city of Mahabad in northwestern Iran. The state itself encompassed a small territory, including Mahabad and the market towns of Piranshahr, Sardasht, Bukan, Naqada and Ushnaviya.

States and territories established in 1946 1947 disestablishments 20th century in Iran Former Kurdish states Former countries in the Middle East States and territories disestablished in 1947 Republic of Mahabad Iran–Soviet Union relations History of the Kurdish people History of West Azerbaijan Province History of Mahabad
Kurds in Turkey

Ethnic Kurds compose 25% of the population in Turkey. Unlike the Turkish people, the Kurds speak an Indo-European language. There are Kurds living in all provinces of Turkey, but are primarily concentrated in the east and southeast of the country, which largely resembles the historical region of Kurdistan. In the 1930s, Turkish government policy aimed at assimilating Kurds in Turkey, many have resisted these measures and today Kurds make up around 20-30% of the population of Turkey.

Ethnic minorities Kurdish diaspora Ethnic groups in Turkey History of the Kurdish people
Gorani language

Not to be confused with Goran language, also known as Dazaga language, part of the Saharan branch of the Nilo-Saharan language family 40x40px Title=Gorani language;ns=0/Main/;language:wiki=en,locale=en test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Gorani HawramiSpoken in Iraq and IranRegion Primarily Hawraman and GarmianNative speakers 44,000  (2000)Language family Indo-European Indo-IranianIranianWesternNorthwesternZaza–GoraniGoraniLanguage codesISO 639-3 hacLinguasphere 58-AAA-b Gorani (also Gurani) is a group of Northwestern Iranian dialects, that includes Hewramî, and is spoken by Kurdish people in the southernmost parts of Iranian Kurdistan and the Iraqi Kurdistan region.

Endangered languages of Iran Endangered languages Northwestern Iranian languages Endangered Iranian languages Endangered languages of Iraq
Kurdish Jews

Kurdish Jews or Kurdistani Jews are the ancient Eastern Jewish communities, inhabiting the region known as Kurdistan in northern Mesopotamia, roughly covering parts of Iran, northern Iraq, Syria and eastern Turkey. Their clothing and culture is similar to neighbouring Kurdish Muslims and Christian Assyrians. Until their immigration to Israel in the 1940s and early 1950s, the Jews of Kurdistan lived as closed ethnic communities.

Mizrahi Jews topics Kurdish Jews Jewish ethnic groups History of the Jews in the Middle East Jews and Judaism in Kurdistan
Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan

The Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan (Kurdish: Partî Dêmokiratî Kurdistanî Êran), abbreviated as PDKI, KDPI, PDKI, is a Kurdish political party in Iranian Kurdistan which seeks the attainment of Kurdish national rights within a democratic federal republic of Iran.

Political parties established in 1945 Political parties in Iran Socialist International Iranian Kurdish organisations
Kurdistan Parliament

The Iraqi Kurdistan Parliament or IKP is the parliament of Kurdistan Regional Government in Iraqi Kurdistan. The IKP is made up of representatives from the various parties, lists or slates that are elected every four years to serve by the inhabitants of the provinces of Iraqi Kurdistan currently governed by the Kurdistan Regional Government. Prior to the new Kurdistan Election Law passed in March 2009, the body was referred to as the Kurdistan National Assembly.

Politics of Iraqi Kurdistan
Kurdish music

Kurdish music refers to music performed in Kurdish language. Traditionally, there are three types of Kurdish Classical performers - storytellers (çîrokbêj), minstrels (stranbêj) and bards (dengbêj). There was no specific music related to the Kurdish princely courts, and instead, music performed in night gatherings (şevbihêrk) is considered classical. Several musical forms are found in this genre.

Kurdish music Kurdish culture Iraqi music Turkish music Syrian music Armenian music Iranian music Fertile Crescent
Kurds in Syria

Kurds are the largest ethnic minority in Syria making up 9% of the country's population. Most of them are Sunni Muslims; there are also Yazidi and Yarsan Kurds in Syria and small numbers of Christians and Alawis. They face routine discrimination and harassment by the Syrian government.

Ethnic minorities Kurdish diaspora Ethnic groups in Syria
Judeo-Aramaic language

Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages.

Aramaic languages
Hizbollah (Turkey)

Hizbullah (English: Party of God), often referred to as the Turkish Hezbollah or Kurdish Hezbollah (KH), to avoid confusion with the unrelated Lebanese Shi'a group called Hezbollah, is a Kurdish Sunni Islamist militant organization, active against the Government of Turkey. Although its members theoretically remain committed to violence, the organization has focused on non-violent activities during the last 10 years.

Jihadist organizations Terrorism in Turkey Secession in Turkey Organizations designated as terrorist by the Turkish Directorate General for Security Kurdish Islamic organisations Organizations designated as terrorist by the United States government
Kurdish nationalism

Kurdish nationalism is the political movement that holds that the Kurdish people are a nation deserving of a sovereign homeland, Kurdistan out of the territories where Kurdish people form a majority. Currently, these territories lie in northern Iraq, northwestern Iran, southeastern Turkey and small parts of Syria. Early Kurdish Nationalism has its roots in the days of the Ottoman Empire, within which it became a significant ethnic group.

History of nationality Nationalism by country or region History of the Kurdish people Kurdish nationalism
Kurdistan List

The Kurdistan List (Kurdish: ليست كوردستان Lîstî Kurdistani), also known as the Kurdistan Alliance or the Brotherhood List, is the name of the electoral coalition that ran in the Kurdistan Regional Government parliamentary elections in Iraqi Kurdistan in July 2009. The Kurdistan List represented a coalition of the two main ruling parties in Iraqi Kurdistan, namely the Kurdistan Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan.

Politics of Iraq Yazidi Iraqi Kurdistan Kurdistan Political parties in Iraqi Kurdistan
Democratic Patriotic Alliance of Kurdistan

The Democratic Patriotic Alliance of Kurdistan (DPAK) sometimes referred to simply as the Kurdistan Alliance (KA) is the name of the electoral coalition first presented as a united Kurdish list in the January 2005 election in Iraq. Elections were held simultaneously for the assembly of the Kurdistan Regional Government.

Political parties in Iraq Political parties in Iraqi Kurdistan Kurdish organisations
Sheikh Said rebellion

Sheikh Said Rebellion was a rebellion of a Kurdish clergy Sheikh Said and a group of former Kurdish Hamidieh soldiers (Azadî group) in 1925.

Kurdish protests and rebellions in Turkey Sheikh Said rebellion
Koma Civakên Kurdistan

Turkish Kurdistan

Turkish Kurdistan (Kurdish: Kurdistana Tirkiyê or Bakurê Kurdistanê,, or Northern Kurdistan) is an unofficial name for the southeastern part of Turkey, which is inhabited predominantly by ethnic Kurds. The area covers between 190,000 to 230,000 km² (88,780 sq mi), or nearly a third of Turkey.

Kurdistan Kurdish inhabited regions
Republic of Ararat

The Republic of Ararat or Kurdish Republic of Ararat was a self-proclaimed Kurdish state. It was located in the northeasten part of modern Turkey, being centered on Karaköse Province. Agirî is the Kurdish name for Ararat.

Former Kurdish states Former republics Republic of Ararat
Kurdish

Iraqi Kurdistan legislative election, 2009

The Iraqi Kurdistan legislative elections of 2009 took place on 25 July 2009. A total of 2.5 million citizens of Iraqi Kurdistan were eligible to vote for the parliamentary and presidential elections. People currently living outside Iraqi Kurdistan were not allowed to vote. The elections followed the Iraqi Kurdistan elections of 2005. The parliamentary elections coincided with the direct election of the President of Kurdistan.

Elections in Iraq 2009 elections in Iraq
Baban

Baban (1649–1850) were a Kurdish principality and ruling family originating from Darishmana in the region of Pijder. The founder of the dynasty and its first ruler was Fakih Ahmed a descendent of the ancient house of Soran. He also had a brother named Khidder Ahmed who lived with him.

1850 disestablishments Former countries in the Middle East Kurdish dynasties Iraqi Kurdistan History of the Kurdish people 1649 establishments
Southern Kurdish

Southern Kurdish, also called Kermānšāhi, belongs to the Northwestern Iranian languages and is predominantly spoken in western Iran and eastern Iraq. In Iran, it is spoken in the provinces of Kermanshah (Kermānšān) and Ilam. In Iraq it is spoken in the region of Khanaqin (Xaneqîn), all the way to Mandali, Pehle. It is also the language of the populous Kurdish Kakayî tribe near Kerkuk and the Zengenes near Kifrî.

Kurdish language
Second Kurdish–Iraqi War

Hamidiye (cavalry)

The Hamidiye corps (literally meaning "belonging to Hamid") were well-armed, irregular Sunni Kurdish, Turkish, Turkmenand Yörük cavalry formations that operated in the eastern regions of the Ottoman Empire. Established by and named after Sultan Abdul Hamid II in 1890, they were intended to be modeled after the Russian Cossacks and were supposedly tasked to patrol the Russo-Ottoman frontier.

History of the Kurdish people People of the Armenian Genocide Military units and formations of the Ottoman Empire
Kurdistan Uyezd

Kurdistan Uyezd (Azerbaijani: Kürdüstan qəzası, Russian: Курдистанский уезд Kurdistanskij Uezd), also known colloquially as Red Kurdistan (Azerbaijani: Qızıl Kürdistan; Kurdish: Кöрдьстана Сор / Kôrdistana Sor; Russian: Красный Курдистан Krasniy Kurdistan) was a Soviet administrative unit that existed for six years from 1923 to 1929. Its capital was Lachin (Laçın in Kurdish). The presence of Kurds in the southern Caucasus dates back to the 9th century.

History of Azerbaijan Nagorno-Karabakh Forced migration in the Soviet Union History of Kurdistan History of Armenia Uyezds of the Russian Empire
Kingdom of Kurdistan

The Kingdom of Kurdistan refers to two short-lived unrecognized states formed in the 1920s in the geo-cultural region of Kurdistan after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, in the territory, officially under the jurisdiction of the British Mandate of Mesopotamia.

Former Kurdish states Former countries in the Middle East 20th century in Iraq States and territories established in 1922 Turkish War of Independence 1924 disestablishments History of the Kurdish people Secession in Iraq Kingdom of Kurdistan
Kurdish alphabets

The Kurdish language is written either using a variant of the Latin alphabet, according to a system introduced by Jeladet Ali Bedirkhan in 1932 (the so-called Bedirxan alphabet, or Hawar after the Hawar magazine), or using a variant of the Persian alphabet, the so-called Sorani alphabet, named for the city of Soran, Iraq. The Hawar is used in Turkey, Syria and Armenia; the Sorani in Iraq and Iran.

Kurdish language Latin alphabets Arabic alphabets
Flag of Kurdistan

The Flag of Kurdistan first appeared during the Kurdish independence movement from the Ottoman Empire. It is said to have been created in the 1900s by the organisation of Xoybûn (Khoyboon). An earlier version of this flag was flown by the break-away Republic of Ararat in Turkey during the period 1927-1931. A similar flag was later used by the Soviet-backed Kurdistan autonomous state known as the Republic of Mahabad in 1946.

Ethnic flags History of the Kurdish people Kurdistan
Iraqi Kurdish Civil War

The Iraqi Kurdish Civil War was a military conflict which took place between rival Kurdish factions in Iraqi Kurdistan in the mid 1990s, most notably the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan vs. the Kurdistan Democratic Party. Over the course of the conflict, Kurdish factions from Iran and Turkey, as well as Iranian, Iraqi and Turkish forces were drawn in to the fighting, with additional involvement from the American forces.

Wars involving Iran 1997 in Iraq Civil wars post-1945 20th century in Iraq Kurdish protests and rebellions in Iraq Conflicts in 1994 Wars involving the United States 1994 in Iraq Civil wars involving the states and peoples of Asia Conflicts in 1997 History of Kurdistan Kurdistan independence movement 1996 in Iraq Conflicts in 1995 History of the Kurdish people Conflicts in 1996 Wars involving Iraq Wars involving Turkey 1995 in Iraq
Newroz in Kurdistan

Newroz or Nûroj refers to the celebration of the traditional Iranian new year holiday of Newroz in Kurdish society. The festival of Nowruz is celebrated throughout the countries of the Middle East and Central Asia such as in Iran, Azerbaijan and Afghanistan. Newroz is also celebrated by some communities in Pakistan and Turkey. In Kurdish legend, the holiday celebrates the deliverance of the Kurds from a tyrant, and it is seen as another way of demonstrating support for the Kurdish cause.

Kurdish culture March observances Nowruz
Kurdish tribes

Kurdish tribes of Kurdistan consist of: Republic of Azerbaijan Sheylanli tribe West Azarbaijan Province: Jalali Milan Haydaran Donboli korahsuni Shekak Herki Bagzâdah Zerzâ Pirân Pizhdar Mâmash Mangur Mokri Dehbokri Malkari Suseni Feizollah beigi Kurdistan Province: Doski Sarshew Tilakui Sursuri Gashki Bashuki Kermanshah province: Kalhor Zangana Sanjâbi Guran Jaff Bajalan Qalkhâni Sharaf bayani Ilam province: Arkawâzi Kord Badrei Malek Shahi Shuhan Khezel Kalhor (Eyvani) Deh Balai Luristan province Biranavand Dilfan Kakavand Jalilavand Zand Mazandaran province: Modânlu Khâjevand Abdul Maleki Gilan province: Amârlu RiŠvand Khorasan province: Zaferânlu Shâdlu Topkânlu Sewkânlu

Kurdish tribes
Kurd-Dagh

Kurd-Dagh or Kurd Mountain, also called Aleppo Mountain, is a highland region in northwestern Syria and southeastern Turkey. It is located in the Aleppo Governorate of Syria and Kilis Province of Turkey.

Mountains of Turkey Mountains of Syria Aleppo Governorate
Kurdish population

The Kurdish population refers to the total number of Kurdish people in the world. The Kurds are the largest ethnic group in the world without their own state.

Kurdish diaspora
Northeastern Neo-Aramaic

Northeastern Neo-Aramaic (often abbreviated NENA) is a term used by Semiticists to refer to a large variety of Modern Aramaic languages that were once spoken of a large region stretching from the plain of Urmia, in northwestern Iran, to the plain of Mosul, in northern Iraq. As of the 1990s, the NENA group had an estimated number of speakers just below 500,000, spread throughout the Middle East and the Assyrian diaspora.

Languages of Israel Languages of Azerbaijan Languages of Iraq Languages of Iran Neo-Aramaic languages Languages of Turkey
Kurdish culture

Kurdish culture is a group of distinctive cultural traits practiced by Kurdish people. The Kurdish culture is a legacy from ancient peoples who shaped modern Kurds and their society. Some aspects of Kurdish culture are close to that of other Iranian peoples; for example all of them celebrate Newroz as the new year day, which is celebrated on March 21.

Kurdish culture
Kurdish–Iraqi conflict

Human rights of Kurdish people in Turkey

Human rights of Kurdish people in Turkey looks at the human rights of Kurds in Turkey.

Kurdish people Human rights in Turkey Minority rights
Kurdish chiefdoms

The Kurdish chiefdoms or principalities were several semi-independent entities which existed during the 16th to 19 centuries in a state of continuous warfare against the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Iran, at times siding with either of them. The Kurdish principalities were almost always divided and entered into violent rivalries against each other.

Former Kurdish states Kurdish dynasties
History of the Kurdish people

The Kurds are an ethnic group who have historically inhabited the mountainous areas to the south of Caucasus, a geographical area collectively referred to as Kurdistan. Most Kurds speak an Indo-European language belonging to the Iranian branch. There are various hypotheses as to predecessor populations of the Kurds, such as the Carduchoi of Classical Antiquity.

History of Kurdistan History of the Kurdish people
Kurdistan Freedom Falcons

The Kurdistan Freedom Falcons (Kurdish: Teyrêbazên Azadiya Kurdistan, TAK), also known as the Kurdistan Freedom Hawks or the Kurdish Vengeance Brigade, is a militant group that has committed attacks throughout Turkey, operating in southern Turkey and northern Iraq with a goal of securing Kurdish secession from Turkey.

Kurdistan independence movement Terrorism in Turkey Nationalist terrorism Kurdistan Secession in Turkey Organizations designated as terrorist in Asia Organizations designated as terrorist in Europe United Kingdom Home Office designated terrorist groups
Kurdish Institute of Paris

Kurdish Institute of Paris (French: Institut Kurde de Paris), founded in February 1983, is an organization focused on Kurdish language and culture. It is one of the main Kurdish academic centers in Europe. Its main publications include a linguistic journal titled Kurmancî in Kurdish, a monthly press review about Kurdish issues titled Bulletin de liaison et d'information (Bulletin of Contact and Information) and Études Kurdes, a research journal in French.

Kurdish culture Kurdish organisations Organizations based in Paris
First Kurdish–Iraqi War

Kurds in Iraq

The Kurdish people are an Ayran ethnic group, descendants of Medes, whose origins are in the Middle East. They are the largest ethnic group in the world that do not have a state of their own. The region of Kurdistan, the original geographic region of the Kurdish people and the home to the majority of Kurds today, covers contemporary Turkey, Iraq, Iran, and Syria. This geo-cultural region means "Land of the Kurds".

Islamic Group in Kurdistan

Islamic Group of Kurdistan/Irak is an Islamist movement in Iraqi Kurdistan. It practices the method of “ Sunnah and Jamaa’h” Established by Ali Bapir in May 2001. Bapir is a former member of the Islamic Movement of Kurdistan. The group reportedly receives funding from the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan.

Islamic organizations Kurdish Islamic organisations Islamic political parties Political parties in Iraqi Kurdistan
2011 Kurdish protests in Turkey

The 2011 Kurdish protests in Turkey are ongoing protests by members of Turkey's Kurdish minority to demonstrate against restrictions of their rights by the Turkish authorities.

Kurdish protests and rebellions in Turkey Impact of the Arab Spring 2011 in Turkey 2011 protests 2011 Kurdish protests
President of Iraqi Kurdistan

The President of Iraqi Kurdistan is the head of the Kurdistan Region in northern Iraq. He is part of the Kurdistan Presidency Council.

Politics of Iraqi Kurdistan
Kurdish literature

Kurdish literature refers to literature written in Kurdish language. Literary Kurdish works have been written in one of the three main dialects of Gorani, Kurmanji and Sorani. Ali Hariri(1425–1495) is one of the first well-known poets who wrote in Kurdish. He was from the Hakkari region.

Kurdish culture Kurdish language Kurdish literature
Iraqi Kurdistan legislative election, 1992

On May 19, 1992, elections were held to the Kurdistan National Assembly, the parliament of the Kurdish Autonomous Region in Iraq. At the time, the National Assembly had 105 seats, of which 5 were reserved for the Assyrian community. Parties had to achieve more than 7% of the vote to be elected. There were 178 polling stations around the region.

20th century in Iraq Elections in Iraq Politics of Iraqi Kurdistan 1992 elections in Iraq
Asaish

Asayesh or Asayish is a Kurdish organization and the primary intelligence agency operating in the Kurdistan region in Iraq. The organization was established in September 1993 and has been often referred to as "intelligence agency" . , "security force",. "security service", "security police", "secret service", "secret police", or just "Kurdish police",.

Law enforcement in Iraq Iraqi intelligence agencies Government agencies established in 1993 Iraqi Kurdistan
Sheylanli (Kurdish tribe)

Sheylanli tribe (Azerbaijani: Şeylanlı qəbiləsi; Russian: Шейланлы, Шейлани, or Шейланы) is a Kurdish tribe who lived in the Sheylanli village, Lachin, until it was occupied by Armenian troops . Since then as the victim of the war, an internally displaced persons, Sheylanlis were fled to the Aghjabadi Rayon, Azerbaijan. They speak Kurmanji dialect of the Kurdish Language .

Kurdish tribes Ethnic groups in Azerbaijan Nagorno-Karabakh History of the Kurdish people Kurdish diaspora
Ey Reqîb

Battle of DimDim

The Battle of DimDim is the name for the battle between the Safavid Empire and the Sunni Kurds of Ottoman Empire between 1609 and 1610.

Battles involving the Safavid dynasty Conflicts in 1609 Conflicts in 1610 Battle of DimDim Ottoman–Persian Wars History of Kurdistan History of West Azerbaijan Province
Armenian–Kurdish relations

Kurdish rebellions

According to Turkish military records, Kurdish rebellions have been taking place in Anatolia for over two centuries.

Kurdish protests and rebellions Rebellions by people
Norashen Church, Tbilisi

Norashen Holy Mother of God Church or Norashen Surb Astvatsatsin Church (Armenian: Նորաշեն Սուրբ Աստվածածին եկեղեցի; Norashen meaning "newly constructed" in Armenian) is a 15th century Armenian church located in Old Tbilisi, Georgia. It was founded in 1467 and renovated in 1650. It also underwent renovations later in 1795, 1808, and 1875.

Old Tbilisi Armenian churches in Tbilisi
Iraqi-Kurdish Autonomy Agreement of 1970

Iraqi-Kurdish Autonomy Agreement of 1970 (or the Iraqi-Kurdish peace talks) was an agreement, which the Iraqi government and the Kurds reached in March 1970, in the aftermath of the First Kurdish-Iraqi War, for the creation of an Autonomous Region, consisting of the three Kurdish governorates and other adjacent districts that have been determined by census to have a Kurdish majority. The plan also gave Kurds representation in government bodies, to be implemented in four years.

1970 in Iraq History of Kurdistan History of the Kurdish people Middle East peace efforts
Kurdistan Socialist Democratic Party

Kurdistan Socialist Democratic Party is a political party in Iraq that currently has 2 seats in the Kurdistan National Assembly. The party is led by Mahmoud Othman. It is a splinter of the Kurdistan Democratic Party.

Political parties in Iraqi Kurdistan Kurdish organisations Socialist parties
Jaff (Kurdish tribe)

The Jaff people (also Jaaf, Jaf, Caf or جاف), one of the largest Kurdish tribes, are native to the Zagros area, which is presently divided between Iran and Iraq. The Jaff dialect (called Jaffi) is part of Sorani, a south-southeastern branch of Kurdish language family. The region inhabited by this tribe is southwest of Sanandaj all the way to Javanroud, and also areas around the city of Sulaimaniyah in Southern Kurdistan.

Kurdish tribes
Kurdish dance

Kurdish dance is a group of traditional hand-holding dances similar to those from the Balkans, Lebanon and Eastern European countries. It is a form of round dancing, with a single or a couple of figure dancers often added to the geometrical centre of the dancing circle. According to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, Kurds sing and dance in all of their festivals, birthdays, New Years, Newroz, marriage and other ceremonies.

Kurdish culture Kurdish dance
Kurdish history

Kurdish cuisine

Kurdish cuisine consists of a wide variety of foods prepared by the people of Kurdistan.

Kurdish cuisine
Kermashani Kurdish dialect

Kermashani (Kermānšāhi) is a subdialect of Kurdish, which is part of the southern branch of Kurdish Language, mostly spoken in western Iran in and around city of Kermanshah (Kirmaşan). It shares many similarities with the Sorani dialect of Kurdish.

Kurdish language Kurdish dialects Southern Kurdish
1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran

1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran erupted in April 1979, some two months after the completion of the Iranian Revolution, and became the largest among the nation-wide uprisings in Iran against the new regime.

Conflicts in 1979 Wars involving Iran 20th century in Iran 1979 in Iran History of Kurdistan Kurdistan independence movement Conflicts in 1980 1980 in Iran History of the Kurdish people
Kurdish American

Kurdish Americans are Americans of Kurdish descent, the majority of Kurdish Americans are recent migrants.

Ethnic groups in the United States Kurdish American history American people of Kurdish descent
1991 Uprising in As Sulaymaniyah

The 1991 Uprising in As Sulaymaniyah or Silêmanî was one of biggest 1991 uprisings in Iraq. As Sulaymaniyah, a Kurdish city of over 100,000 population was the first Iraqi city to be captured by rebels and the last one to fall.

Kurdish protests and rebellions in Iraq Sulaymaniyah
Lachin Kurdish Republic

The Lachin Kurdish Republic was self proclaimed on May 20, 1992, in Lachin, just two days after this area of Azerbaijan had been captured and burned by Armenian forces and largely emptied of its population as part of the ongoing Nagorno-Karabakh War. The idea, essentially a nominal re-institution of the 1920s entity of 'Red Kurdistan', was floated by the Armenians for whom the Lachin Corridor constituted a strategically vital link to Nagorno-Karabakh.

Former Kurdish states 1992 disestablishments States and territories established in 1992
TRT 6

TRT 6, part of the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, is Turkey's first national Kurdish language television station. It broadcasts in the Kurmanji and Sorani dialects of the Kurdish language and in the Zaza language, offering programs aimed at all ages and promoting the perspective of the Turkish state and its values. TRT 6 programs include films, documentaries, drama series and music programs, as well as programs aimed at children and women.

Television channels and stations established in 2009 Kurdish-language television stations Television stations in Turkey
Kurdish Christians

Kurdish Christians are Kurds who follow Christianity and mostly live in the Kurdistan region. The word Xirîstî is derived from the Greek words χριστιανός (khristianos) and χριστιανή (khristiani). The Arabic word Mesîhî is also sometimes used. Kurdish Christians should not be confused with other historical Christian communities living in the area such as the Assyrians, Armenians or Georgians.

Kurdish people Asian Christians Christianity in Kurdistan
Kurdish Rebellion of 1983

The Kurdish Rebellion of 1983 occurred during the Iran-Iraq war as Kurds of northern Iraq rebelled against Saddam Hussein, in an attempt to form their own autonomous country. The most violent stage of this rebellion was the al-Anfal campaign of the Iraqi Army against the Kurdish minority, which took place between 1986–1989 and included the Halabja poison gas attack. The rebellion ended in 1988 with an agreement of amnesty between the two belligerents, Iraqi government and Kurdish rebels.

Wars involving Iran Iran–Iraq War 1985 in Iraq 1988 in Iraq 1987 in Iraq Kurdish protests and rebellions in Iraq History of Iraq 1986 in Iraq History of Kurdistan Kurdistan independence movement 1983 in Iraq 1984 in Iraq Secession in Iraq Wars involving Iraq
Israeli–Kurdish relations

International Journal of Kurdish Studies

Not to the confused with Peeter's Journal of Kurdish Studies The International Journal of Kurdish Studies is an academic journal published by the Kurdish Library, and was edited by Vera Beaudin Saeedpour. It publishes scholarly articles about Kurdish culture, literature, and history. It was founded in 1986 as Kurdish Times before getting its current title after volume 4. The journal is indexed by the Index Islamicus.

Area studies journals Kurdistan Publications established in 1986
Kurdish women

Kurdish women have traditionally played important roles in Kurdish history, society and politics.

Kurdish people
Timeline of the Kurdish–Turkish conflict

Kurdish Human Rights Project

The Kurdish Human Rights Project is the only non-partisan human rights organisation consistently working in the Kurdish regions of Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Syria and elsewhere. It is a registered charity, founded and based in London in 1992, and its supporters include Kurds and non-Kurds. Its activities include litigation and advocacy, trial observation and fact-finding missions, research and publications and public awareness, education and communication initiatives.

Human rights organisations based in the United Kingdom Human rights in Turkey Human rights in Iraq Human rights in Syria Kurdish organisations
Jalali (Kurdish tribe)

Jalali are Kurdish tribe of eastern Turkey and northwestern Iran. They predominantly inhabit in Diyadin district in Ağrı Province as well as in Maku district in West Azerbaijan Province.

Kurdish tribes Maku County Diyadin
List of Kurdish-language television channels

This is a list of Kurdish language television channels.

Kurdish language Lists of television channels by language
Kurdish PEN

Kurdish PEN or The Kurdish Centre of the International PEN (Navenda PEN a Kurd in Kurdish) is a branch of International PEN. It was suggested by Kurdish writer Hüseyin Erdem and voted into existence during International PEN's conference in Cambridge in 1988. Its headquarters are located in Cologne, Germany. The Kurdish PEN Center actively works with Kurdish writers in all parts of Kurdistan to promote the Kurdish language and literature. The Center is headed by Dr. Zaradachet Hajo.

Kurdish-language media International PEN centers Organisations based in Cologne
List of Kurdish people

This is a list of well known Kurdish people.

Kurdish people Lists of people by nationality
British Kurds

British Kurds may refer to people born in or residing in the United Kingdom who are of Kurdish origin.

British people of Asian descent Immigration to the United Kingdom by country of origin British people of Kurdish descent Ethnic groups in the United Kingdom Kurdish diaspora
Kurdish Heritage Foundation of America

Kurdish Heritage Foundation of America, also known as Kurdish Library and Museum, was a cultural organization based in Brooklyn, New York. It collected items related to Kurdish culture, literature and history. Its library contained around 2,000 volumes on Kurdish-related subjects. The library and Museum was listed as one of the recommended attractions in New York City. The museum was focused on Kurdish art and handicrafts. This organization was founded by Vera Beaudin Saeedpour in 1981.

Kurdish American history Libraries in New York City Museums in Brooklyn Ethnic museums in New York Kurdish organisations
Mahmud Barzanji revolts

Mahmud Barzanji revolts were a series of armed uprisings by Kurdish Sheykh Mahmud Barzanji against the Iraqi authority in newly conquered British Mesopotamia and later the British Mandate in Iraq. Following his first insurrection in May 1919, Sheykh Mahmud was imprisoned and eventually exiled to India for a one year period. When returning, he was once again appointed a governor, but shortly revolted again declaring himself as the ruler of the Kingdom of Kurdistan.

Conflicts in 1922 1919 in Iraq Conflicts in 1923 1923 in Iraq 1922 in Iraq History of Iraq 1924 in Iraq Conflicts in 1919 Secession in Iraq Conflicts in 1924 Kingdom of Kurdistan
Feyli dialect

Feyli is a dialect of Southern Kurdish, spoken in Iraqi Kurdistan and Iranian Kurdistan (i.e. the eastern part of Iraq in the Khanaqin region in the Diyala province near the Iraqi-Iranian border), Ilam province and parts of Kermanshah province in Iran by Feyli Kurds. Mahaki is a sub-dialect of Feyli.

Kurdish language
List of Iranian Kurds

Iranian Kurds — an Iranic-speaking ethnic group. Iranian Kurds are both Shia and Sunni Muslims. Traditionally, the Iranian Kurds live in Kordestan province, Kermanshah province, Ilam province and parts of West Azerbaijan province. The majority of the Kermanshah and Ilam provinces as well as eastern Kordestan province are Shia Muslim Kurds. Below are lists of prominent Kurds from Iran. In the list, they are indicated only by place of birth.

Iranian peoples Ethnic groups in Iran Iranian Kurdish people Muslim communities
Early Kurdish Nationalism

Kurdish nationalism History of Kurdistan Kurdistan independence movement Kurdistan Kurdish people
Kurdish Language Academy in Iran

[edit] Establishment Kurdish Language Academy in Iran was established in Tehran in 2002 when the First Conference on Kurdish Language Teaching was held in 2002. More than 150 Iranian Kurdish writers, academicians, linguists and journalists participated in this conference and a dozen of articles on the different aspects of Kurdish language were presented.

Kurdish language Kurdish literature
Kurdish separatism

Kurdistan Democratic Party of Syria

The Kurdistan Democratic Party of Syria is a Kurdish Syrian political party founded in 1957 by kurdish nationalists in northern Syria, it is actually banned in Syria because present Syrian government does not allow opposition political parties to form without permission. The party is actually based in Hamburg, Germany and has various branches in France, United Kingdom, Sweden and the United States of America.

Political parties in Syria Kurdish organisations
Iraqi Kurd

Iraqi Kurdistan Football Association

The Kurdistan Football Association is the football governing body in Kurdistan.."

Kurdistan
Kurdistan Revolutionary Party

Kurdish Revolutionary Party was a political party in Iraq. Originally formed in 1964, it merged into Kurdish Democratic Party in 1970. The party was revived by a group of anti-Barzani dissidents in the KDP leadership in 1974. The refounded Kurdish Revolutionary Party joined the National Progressive Front and supported the Kurdish autonomy law proposed by the Iraqi government. The party was led by Abd as-Sattar Tahir Sharif, who left Iraq in 1999.

Political parties in Iraqi Kurdistan
List of Kurdish dynasties and countries

This is the list of Kurdish dynasties, principalities and autonomous territories.

Former Kurdish states Kurdish dynasties
Kurdish Institute of Istanbul

Kurdish Institute of Istanbul (Kurdish: Enstîtuya Kurdî Ya Stenbolê, Turkish: İstanbul Kürt Enstitüsü), founded in 1992, is an organization focusing on Kurdish literature, language and culture. Kurdish and Turkish intellectuals such as Musa Anter, Yaşar Kaya, Feqî Huseyîn Sagniç, İsmail Beşikçi, Abdurrahman Dürre, İbrahim Gürbüz, Cemşîd Bender ve Süleyman İnanoğlu were among the founding members.

Kurdish culture Organizations based in Istanbul Kurdish organisations
Timeline of Kurdish uprisings

Central and Eastern European rebellions Secession in Turkey Rebellions against the Ottoman Empire History of the Kurdish people Kurdish protests and rebellions Rebellions in Asia
Kalhor (Kurdish tribe)

Kalhor is a Kurdish tribe in the most southern part of Iranian Kurdistan. The tribe is described as the most powerful tribe in the province of Kermānšāh and north ilam(eyvan-e-gharb)as “one of the most ancient, if not the most ancient, of the tribes of Kurdistan”. The Kelhors were already mentioned by Šaraf-al-Din Bedlisi in the late 16th century, according to whom, the chiefs of the Kalhor claimed to be descended from Gudarz, son of Giv (q.v.

Iranian peoples Kurdish tribes
Kurdish dialects

Kurdish dialects are dialects of the Kurdish language. They are linguistic varieties which differ in pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar from each other and from the various standardised forms of Kurdish.

Languages of Armenia Languages of Azerbaijan Languages of Iraq Languages of Iran Kurdish language Languages of Syria Languages of Turkey
Kurdish–Iranian conflict

Salim (poet)

Abdul-Rehman Begi Saheb-Qiran Famous by his pseudonym as Salim or Salem, he was born in 1800 in Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan, died 1866. He is one of the most significant classic Kurdish poets. He was the uncle of Nalî and the cousin of Kurdî, two famous poets. He died in 1866 in Sulaimany.

People from Sulaymaniyah 1800 births 1866 deaths Kurdish-language poets
List of Kurdish press

The first Kurdish newspaper titled Kurdistan, was published in Cairo in 1898. Since then tens of different Kurdish newspapers, magazines and journals have been published in Ottoman Empire, Iraq, Armenia, Syria, Lebanon and Iran and in recent years in Turkey, Germany, Sweden and France. The following is a list of well-known Kurdish newspapers and magazines in chronological order. Kurdistan, Newspaper, Cairo/Geneva, First issue in 1898, 31 issues in total.

Kurdish-language media
Kurdish Alliance

Milan (Kurdish tribe)

The Milans are a Kurdish tribe that lives in Kurdistan, the northern regions of West Azarbaijan Province in Iran, around Maku, south of Aras river. They are neighbours of Jalali Kurds. The population is about five million. The Milan tribe consists of seven main tribes and of 65 tribals. (Total 72 tribals) Mir Gazi was their first leader. Mir Gırd Ali beg is their current leader.

Kurdish tribes
Islamic Kurdish League

Islamic Kurdish League (Kurdish: Yekgırtiya İslamiya Kurdi) is a Kurdish Islamic Sunni political party, in Iraqi Kurdistan

Islamic organizations Kurdish Islamic organisations Islamic political parties Political parties in Iraqi Kurdistan
Kurdish clothing

Kurdish traditional clothing are variant and an ongoing part of Kurdish heritage. Kurdish clothes have never gone out of fashion.

Kurdish clothing
2011 Kurdish protests in Iraq

The 2011 Kurdish protests in Iraq were a series of demonstrations and riots against the Kurdistan Regional Government in northern Iraq. The autonomous region of Iraqi Kurdistan experienced protests distinct from protests elsewhere in Iraq, which took place concurrent with the Kurdish protests. These Kurdish protests were also related to Kurdish protests in Turkey and protests in Iran, as well as a general uprising in Syria joined and supported by Syrian Kurds.

2011 in Iraq Impact of the Arab Spring Iraqi Kurdistan 2011 protests in Iraq 2011 protests
Kurdish recognition of the Armenian genocide

Kurdish recognition of the Armenian Genocide is the recognition of the Kurdish participation in the ethnic cleansing of Armenians during World War I, when Kurdish tribal forces (as well as Turks and Muslims from various Caucasian tribes) attacked and killed Armenian civilians and refugees. In several of the Kurdish regions, the Kurds participated in the genocide of the Armenians while others opposed the genocide, in many cases even hiding or adopting Armenian refugees.

History of Kurdistan Politics of Armenia Armenian Genocide Kurdistan
Berwari (Kurdish tribe)

Berwari is the name of a Kurdish tribe in Iraq. The Berwari are divided into two main branches, the Berwari Bala and the Berwari Jeri. Each tribe lives in about 80 villages. In 1971 most of their villages were destroyed by the Baathist party. Many Berwari subsequently emigrated to Iran, Turkey, the United States and European countries.

Kurdish tribes
Kurdish rugs

Kurdish rugs are rugs woven by the Kurdish people in the Middle East, predominantly the larger Kurdistan region including the Eastern part of Turkey near the Tauros Mountains, Iraq, southernmost Caucasus, Soviet Armenia and North-Western Iran. When referring to Kurdish rugs within the rug industry, one is referring to those made within Iranian Kurdistan.

Kurdish culture Rugs and carpets
Mangur (Kurdish tribe)

Mangur is one of the largest Kurdish tribes of Eastern Kurdistan. They live in the district and cities of Piranshahr to Mahabad. There are about 170 villages of Mangur tribe and these villages stretch to the Iraqi Kurdistan to the city of Qaladiza and Pizhdar area. This tribe consists of 32 families like:Sham,Kaderwashi, chekale, zodi, wejakh, shikhsharafi, Marzing and etc.

Kurdish tribes
Washington Kurdish Institute

Washington Kurdish Institute is an educational and research organization focused on Kurds. It was established in September 1996 and is based in Washington DC. Its objectives are raising awareness of Kurdish issues, promoting human rights in Kurdish areas and supporting development of civil society among Kurds. The institute has a Board of Directors headed by Dr. Najmaldin Karim.

Kurdish organisations
Kurdish Democratic Party (Lebanon)

Jamil Mihhu established the Kurdish Democratic Party in 1960, but it was not licensed until 1970. Mihhu, however, supported the Iraqi government against Kurdish rebels fighting in that country, and he was captured and imprisoned by the Kurdish resistance in Iraq. Consequently, the leadership of the party passed to Jamil's son, Riyad.

Political parties established in 1960 Kurdish organisations Political parties in Lebanon
Kurdish women in warfare

Kurdish people Kurdistan
KON-KURD

The Confederation of Kurdish Associations in Europe (or KON-KURD) is a European Kurdish association, centered in Brussels. The member federations are located in several European countries, with some associations from Australia and Canada also belonging to the federation. KON-KURD is the biggest organisation of Kurds in Exile. Its members are mostly Kurds from Turkey. According to Der Tagesspiegel, the confederation has close ties to PKK.

Kurdish diaspora Kurdish organisations
Kurdish refugees

The problem of Kurdish refugees and displaced has been created over the 20th century in the Middle East, and continues to loom today. Displacements of Kurds had already been happening within the Ottoman Empire, on pretext of local rebellions' suppression, over the period of its domination of the northern Fertile Crescent and the adjacent areas of Zagros and Taurus.

Iran–Iraq War Forced migration Persecution Kurdish diaspora Iraqi society
Kurdish villages destroyed during the Iraqi Arabization campaign

Kurdish villages destroyed during the Iraqi Arabization campaign refers to villages razed by Iraq in the Iraqi government's "Arabization campaign" of areas, excluded from Kurdistan under the Iraqi-Kurdish Autonomy Agreement of 1970.

Former populated places in Iraq History of the Kurdish people
Kurdish cinema

Kurdish cinema mainly evokes the poverty and sufferings of the Kurdish people in the Middle East. Yilmaz Güney, Hiner Saleem, Bahman Qubadi, Mano Khalil, Shero Rauf, Jano Rosebiani, Kazim Oz, Shewket Amin Korki, Havi Ibrahim, Hisham Zaman, Jay Jonroy' and Yüksel Yavuz ‎are among the better known Kurdish directors.

Kurdish culture
Kurdish United Front

Kurdish United Front (in Kurdish به ره ی يه ک گه رتووی كورد; in Persian جبهه متحد كرد) is a political and social movement in Iran that was established in January 2006 to unite all Iranian Kurds to achieve their rights within the Iranian Constitution and to oppose social injustice against Kurds in Iran http://www. kurduf. com. There are several chapters of the Front in different provinces. Some of the Front's founding members are: Mr. Bahaoddin Adab, Mr. Hossein Shahveissi, Dr.

Political parties in Iran Political parties established in 2006 Iranian Kurdish organisations
Al-Qaeda Kurdish Battalions

Al-Qaeda Kurdish Battalions (AQKB) is a militant Islamist organization, primarily active in the northern Iran-Iraq boarder. It is a Kurdish-affiliated branch of Al-Qaeda that has lunched several attacks the Kurdistan Regional Government in northern Iraq. The group is was classified as a terrorist organization by the US State Department on January 1, 2012.

Kurdistan
Kurdish folklore

Kurdish region

Bible translations into Kurdish

Part of the Bible was first available in the Kurdish language in 1856 in the Kurmanji dialect. The Gospels were translated by Stepan, an Armenian employee of the American Bible Society and were published in 1857. Isaac Grout Bliss, of the American Bible Society translated the rest of the NT books, and the entire New Testament was published in Istanbul by A.H. Bohajian in 1872. It was published in the Armenian alphabet.

Bible translations by language Kurdish language Kurdish Christians Kurdish literature
Christian Kurds

Kurdish Textile Museum

The Kurdish Textile Museum is a museum devoted to textiles produced in Iraqi Kurdistan. It was established in 2004 and is located in a renovated mansion in the southeast quarter of the Citadel of Arbil.

Museums established in 2004 Textile museums 2004 establishments in Iraq Buildings and structures in Arbil Museums in Iraq
List of Kurdish historical sites

This article briefly introduces a list of better known Kurdish historical sites . Outside of Kurdish historical sites within Kurdistan, non-Kurdish sites within Kurdistan, and Kurdish sites outside of Kurdistan are also included.

Kurdish culture Lists of places
Kurdish Women's Rights Watch

Kurdish Women's Rights Watch (KWRW) was set up in June 2004 as a non-profit-making, non- political network of activists, academics, lawyers and journalists. Based in the United Kingdom, KWRW grew out of Kurdish Women's Action Against Honour Killings (KWAHK), an association that was set up in 2000. The current president is Nazand Begikhani. It campaigns to promote awareness of the condition of Kurdish women, with particular attention to domestic violence and honour killings.

Non-governmental organizations Civil rights organizations
Feyli (Kurdish tribe)

The Feylî (also Fayli, Faili or Faylee) is a Kurdish tribe. The Faylee Kurds are ethnic groups of ancient peoples of the Middle East, who are part of the Kurdish people. They lived in the land of Kurdistan, which was divided between Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria. The Faylee Kurds live in an area called the Elam, between western Iran and eastern Iraq, including the Loristan plateau. Loristan was one of civilization's birthplaces.

Kurdish tribes
Kurdish grammar

This article deals with the grammar of the Kurdish language.

Kurdish language Grammars of specific languages
The Kurdish Globe

The Kurdish Globe, previously known as The Hewler Globe, is the first English-language newspaper published in Arbil, Kurdistan, northern Iraq. Published for the first time on March 31, 2005, its Editor-in-Chief and founder is Jawad Qadir. The name was changed from The Hewler Globe to The Kurdish Globe since the paper included issues of a pan-Kurdish nature, including all parts of Kurdistan in Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria, and not just Hewlêr. This weekly newspaper is published every Tuesday.

English-language newspapers published in Arab countries Arbil Newspapers published in Iraq
Kurdish Institute of Brussels

The Kurdish Institute of Brussels is a non-profit organization, based in Brussels, Belgium, which aims for the integration of the Kurds and other minorities into the Belgian society, as well as to promote the Kurdish culture both in and out of Kurdistan.

Kurdish culture Kurdish organisations
Northern Kurdish

List of Kurdish organisations

Kurdish Organisations

Kurdish organisations Lists of organizations
The Kurdish Digital Library

The Kurdish Digital Library (called BNK, in French La bibliothèque numérique kurde) is a multimedia digital library created by Kurdish Institute of Paris. The Digital Library consists of writings about the Kurds and Kurdistan. Its aim is to make the Kurdish cultural heritage available as digital data.

Digital libraries Kurdish culture 10th arrondissement of Paris World Digital Library
Suseni (Kurdish tribe)

The Susiana tribe governed their own Kurdish state under the name "Haltamti" until the 6th century BC. The Susiana tribe originated from the town of Susa, which was founded about 4000 BC. During its early history, it fluctuated between submission to Mesopotamian and Elamite power. From the 16th century, with the advent of the Safavid dynasty in Persia, the southern half of the province came to be gradually known as Arabestan.

Kurdish tribes
Kurdish typography

The Middle Kurdish variety Sorani is mainly written using an Arabic alphabet with 33 letters. Unlike the regular Arabic script, which is an abjad, Kurdish Arabic is an alphabet in which vowels are mandatory, making the script easy to read.

Arabic alphabets
Israeli–Kurdish relations

The Israeli-Kurdish relations are foreign relations between Israel and Iraqi Kurdistan. Iran and Syria, who share borders with Kurdistan, have accused the Kurds of having relations with Israel. Massoud Barzani, president of Iraqi Kurdistan and leader of the Kurdistan Democratic Party, said in 2005 that "establishing relations between the Kurds and Israel is not a crime since many Arab countries have ties with the Jewish state".

Foreign relations of Israel Kurdish relations
First Kurdish–Iraqi War

First Kurdish–Iraqi War or Barazani Rebellion was a major event of the Iraqi-Kurdish conflict, lasting from 1961 until 1970. The struggle was led by Mustafa Barzani, in an attempt to establish independent Kurdish state in north Iraq. Throughout the 1960s, the uprising escalated into a long war, which failed to resolve despite internal power changes in Iraq. The war ended with a stalemate by 1970, resulting in between 75,000 to 105,000 casualties.

1965 in Iraq 1966 in Iraq 1962 in Iraq 1970 in Iraq Wars involving Syria 20th century in Iraq 1961 in Iraq Kurdish protests and rebellions in Iraq History of Iraq 1963 in Iraq 1968 in Iraq 1969 in Iraq History of Kurdistan Kurdistan independence movement 1967 in Iraq 1964 in Iraq Wars involving Iraq
Armenian–Kurdish relations

Kurdish-Armenian relations covers the historical relations between the Kurds and the Armenians.

Yazidi Kurdistan Kurdish relations Foreign relations of Armenia
List of Kurdish actors

This is list of Kurdish Actors and Actresses.

Kurdish actors
Kurdish Tribal Association

Kurdish Tribal Association is a Kurdish tribal grouping (of about 20 to 30 tribes), established 1991 in Iraqi Kurdistan.

Political parties in Iraqi Kurdistan
Kurdish calendar

The Kurdish calendar was originally a lunisolar calendar related to the Babylonian calendar, but is now a solar calendar related to the Iranian calendar. On March 20, 2012 it will be Jejhnan 1, 2624 in the Kurdish calendar.

Kurdish culture Kurdistan Fertile Crescent
Kurdish mythology

Kurdish mythology is the collective term for the beliefs and practices of the culturally, ethnically or linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Kurdistan mountains of Taurus and Western Zagros in northern Mesopotamia. In Kurdish mythology, Kurds are descended of people who fled to the mountains to save their lives from the oppression of a despotic king.

Kurdish culture Kurdish mythology
Kurdish Revolutionary Hezbollah

The Kurdish Revolutionary Hezbollah (Kurdish: Hizbullahi Kurdi Shorishger) is a splinter group of the Kurdish Hezbollah and Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq. The Kurdish Revolutionary Hezbollah established 1988 in South Kurdistan under the leadership of Adham Barzani, a cousin of Massoud Barzani.

Kurdish Islamic organisations Political parties in Iraqi Kurdistan
Kurdish–Iranian conflict

The Kurdish–Iranian conflict is an ongoing long running separatist dispute between the Kurdish opposition in Western Iran and the government of Iran, lasting since the emergence of the Pahlavi Reza Shah in 1920. The revolts caused great destruction to the Iranian Kurdistan and its people, failing however to gain any success in the separatist struggle. More than 1,000 died in the Mahabad arena of the 1946 crisis.

Kurdistan independence movement History of the Kurdish people Secession in Iran Wars involving Iran
Kurdish–Turkish conflict

The Kurdish–Turkish conflict is an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and various Kurdish insurgent groups, which have demanded separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan, or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds inside the Republic of Turkey.

Kurdistan Workers' Party Kurdish protests and rebellions in Turkey Terrorist incidents in the 1990s Iraqi Kurdistan Kurdistan independence movement Secession in Turkey History of the Kurdish people Secession in Iraq Wars involving Turkey
Goran (Kurdish name)

Goran (also Guran) is a Kurdish name commonly used for males in the geographical region of Kurdistan and by Kurdish people worldwide. The name is also sometimes a surname. Goran is not to be confused with the Kurdish word, Gorran, which means Change and is also the name of a Kurdish political faction in Iraq.

Kurdish culture Kurdish language
Timeline of the Kurdish–Turkish conflict

The Kurdish–Turkish conflict is an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and various Kurdish insurgent groups, which have demanded separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan, or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds inside the Republic of Turkey. The main rebel group is the Kurdistan Workers' Party or PKK, which was founded on November 27, 1978, and started a full-scale insurgency on August 15, 1984 when the PKK announced a Kurdish uprising.

Kurdistan Workers' Party Terrorist incidents in the 1990s Iraqi Kurdistan Secession in Turkey History of the Kurdish people Conflicts in 2007 Wars involving Turkey
Second Kurdish–Iraqi War

Second Kurdish–Iraqi War was an offensive, led by Iraqi forces against rebel KDP troops of Mustafa Barzani during 1974-1975. The war came in the aftermath of the First Kurdish Iraqi War (1961-1970), as the 1970 peace plan for Kurdish autonomy had failed.

1975 in Iraq Kurdish protests and rebellions in Iraq History of Iraq History of Kurdistan Kurdistan independence movement Rebellions in Asia Wars involving Iraq
Kurdish participation in the 2011–2012 Syrian uprising

Kurds have participated in the 2011-2012 Syrian uprising uprising in smaller numbers than their Syrian Arab counterparts. This has been explained as being due to the Turkish endorsement of the opposition, and Kurd underrepresentation in the Syrian National Council. "The regime tried to neutralize Kurds," said Hassan Saleh, leader of the Kurdish Yekiti Party. "In the Kurdish areas, people are not being repressed like the Arab areas. But activists are being arrested.

2011–2012 Syrian uprising
List of countries by Kurdish-speaking population

This is a list of countries of the world sorted by total Kurdish-speaking population.

Kurdish language Countries-languages-related lists
Kurdish–Iraqi conflict

The Iraqi–Kurdish conflict consists of a series of wars and rebellions by the Kurds against the central authority of Iraq, which began shortly after the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I. The conflict began with the attempt by Mahmud Barzanji to establish an independent Kingdom of Kurdistan and lasted until the U.S. invasion to Iraq in 2003, though tensions between the Kurdish autonomy and the central Iraqi government have continued.

History of Kurdistan Military history of Iraq Secession in Iraq
Kurdish villages depopulated by Turkey

The number of Kurdish villages depopulated by Turkey is estimated at around 3,000. Since 1984, the Turkish military has embarked on a campaign to eradicate the Kurdistan Workers Party, a militant Kurdish opposition group. As a result, 30,000 people have died, and two million Kurdish refugees have been driven out of their homes into overcrowded urban shantytowns.

Former populated places in Turkey History of the Kurdish people
List of Kurdish organizations designated as terrorist

Terrorism-related lists Organizations designated as terrorist Kurdish organisations
Kurdish News Network

Kurdish News Network (KNN), is a Kurdish language news television network founded in 2008 by Nawshirwan Mustafa, the leader of the Goran political party. The channel is headquartered in Sulaimaniya.

Iraqi television networks Television stations in Iraqi Kurdistan
List of Kurdish poets and authors

The following is a list of people who have contributed to the Kurdish literature. This list is not comprehensive, but is continuously being expanded and includes Kurdish writers and poets from Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria, Russia, and European countries.

Kurdish-language writers Lists of people by ethnicity Kurdish-language poets

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